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domingo, 4 de noviembre de 2012

Complejo de Edipo: enamorados de sus padres


Leyendo algunas cosas en la web me encontré con la guiadelnino.com y un tema super interesante que no hemos abordado aquí en Gente Saludable y decidimos presentárselos. El complejo de Edipo. En la primaria escuchamos bastante sobre Edipo y su historia, eso está cada día más vigente. Aquí les presentamos el artículo.

¿Tu hijo o tu hija tiene entre 4 y 6 años y expresa celos cuando papá y mamá se abrazan? ¿Se muestra posesivo con alguno de ustedes? ¿Te declara su amor y asegura que cuando sea mayor, se casará contigo? Si es así, no te sorprendas: está en pleno “complejo de Edipo”.

A esta edad, niños y niñas comienzan a tomar conciencia de su sexo y se interesan por cómo papá y mamá les trajeron al mundo. Inician así un largo viaje que les llevará a identificarse como niña o niño. El “complejo de Edipo” es una etapa en este camino. Freud lo bautizó así en referencia a la tragedia griega de Sófocles titulada “Edipo Rey” en la que Edipo, sin saberlo, mata a su padre y se casa con su madre. En las niñas, el complejo toma el nombre de “Electra”.

Sentimientos encontrados
En torno a los 3 años, el niño -o la niña- empieza a mostrar interés por su propio cuerpo y por los roles asociados a su sexo. Sus modelos para identificarse sexualmente son sus progenitores. Imita en todo a su padre si es un niño o a su madre si es una niña. Y como papá, quiere seducir a mamá para que le quiera como le quiere a él. Desea ganar todo su afecto, ocupar el lugar de papá en su corazón.
Este deseo de lograr el amor de su madre, desplazando a su padre lleva implícitos fuertes sentimientos encontrados que el pequeño debe superar con tu ayuda:
• Amor y odio: por un lado el niño quiere a su padre y le admira pero por otro lo ve como un rival. Fantasea con ganarle la partida. En la niña, sucede lo mismo pero la contradicción que vive es mayor porque su rival de ahora es su primer amor. Esta duplicidad de sentimientos repercute en el estado emocional del niño y de la niña.
• Culpabilidad y miedo: son los estados emocionales más frecuentes en esta etapa. El niño o la niña no puede evitar tener deseos inconfesables de victoria pero se siente mal por el hecho de tenerlos. Se siente culpable y tiene miedo de perder el cariño de su padre o su madre a causa de la rivalidad que imagina existir entre ellos.

Cómo afrontar el complejo de Edipo
Tu actitud es importante para que el niño se identifique con su rol sexual y comprenda mejor las relaciones familiares.
Considera esta etapa como algo normal y pasajero en su desarrollo.
No te burles. Para él, es un tema muy serio aunque a ti, te resulte a veces divertido.
No entres en su juego. Él está confuso y tú debes ayudarle. Si te dice que se quiere casar contigo, dile que eso no puede ser que ya estás casada con papá y que él ya conocerá a una chica con la que se enamorará como papá de ti.
Preserva momentos de intimidad con tu pareja y enseña a tu hijo a respetarlos.

Mucho cuidado si…
Ciertas circunstancias complican una buena resolución del complejo de Edipo. Es importante estar muy atento si…
• Tienes hijos del mismo sexo de edades parecidas. Estarán viviendo su complejo de Edipo a la vez. La rivalidad se dará con el progenitor del mismo sexo y también con el hermano. Este enfrentamiento se puede agravar si existen celos entre ambos. Conviene no alimentarlos y manifestar la misma atención y afecto a ambos.
• En caso de  separación o crisis de pareja durante esta etapa. El sentimiento de culpabilidad del hijo puede verse agravado al fantasear con la idea de que los problemas de sus padres se deben a sus deseos y fantasías de rival. Es importante que entienda que él no es responsable de sus problemas de pareja y que ambos le siguen queriendo igual.

Lo importante es conversar con paciencia las veces que sean necesarias para que el proceso sea cada vez más llevadero y el niño entienda progresivamente los procesos. De ser necesario pida ayuda a un especialista, esto le permitirá adquirir las herramientas correspondientes para que la evolución sea exitosa.

Información tomada de vidayfamilia.univision.com.


Puedes contactarnos a nuestro correo electrónico gentesaludableradio@gmail.com y seguirnos en el twitter @gentesaludable. Sonríe siempre. Hasta la próxima.

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